Abort - No effect on ratings
Resign- Affects ratings immediately after the abort option is gone (one move)
Timeouts - No effects until four moves.
The Rating Deviation is an index of the accuracy of your rating given the amount of game data it's based on: It's a margin of error. (If your RD is high, it means a bigger margin of error.)
When you haven't played many games, your rating can move up and down quickly. Similarly, your rating moves less when playing an opponent with a high rating deviation because his or her true rating is less certain.
Of course, as you play more and more, your rating will become more accurate and less volatile.
To find out all the details, please read this article on the subject.
keywords: rating, ratings, RD, deviation